Exchange symmetry, fluctuation-compressibility relation, and thermodynamic potentials of quantum liquids
Liquid helium does not obey the Gibbs fluctuation-compressibility relation, which was noted more than six decades ago. However, still missing is a clear explanation of the reason for the deviation or the correct fluctuation-compressibility relation for the quantum liquid. Here we present the fluctuation-compressibility relation valid for any grand canonical system. Our result shows that the deviation from the Gibbs formula arises from a nonextensive part of thermodynamic potentials. The particle-exchange symmetry of many-body wave function of a strongly degenerate quantum gas is related to the thermodynamic extensivity of the system; a Bose gas does not always obey the Gibbs formula, while a Fermi gas does. Our fluctuation-compressibility relation works for classical systems as well as quantum systems. This work demonstrates that the application range of the Gibbs-Boltzmann statistical thermodynamics can be extended to encompass nonextensive open systems without introducing any postulate other than the principle of equal a priori probability.